the European cement industry and in particular the usage of organic materials as substitutes for fossil fuels. The primary objective of a cement company is to produce and sell high quality cement. Whilst respecting this purpose, the use of waste materials can bring a number of benefits both to the cement industry and to society in general.
For the cement industry, the standard is set for the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with the fineness of 2800 cm2/g. The standard specifies the electricity and fuel intensity for different types of cement production processes, as following:
The most interesting among them for the cement industry is the Tyre derived fuel. Used tyres despite reaching the end of life period as vehicle subsystems, they have a high calorific value. In particular, the energy content of scrap tyres ranges from 7,200 to 8,300 Kcal/Kg according to various cases.
Cement production CO 2 abatement technologies Alternative fuels • Coal is the most carbonintensive fossil fuel and is the most widelyused fuel in the cement industry • Replacing fossil fuel with biomass and/or waste derived fuels saves energy and natural resources, reduces CO 2 emissions, and gives number of potential benefits
Historically, the primary fuel used in cement industry is coal. A wide range of other fuels such as gas, oil, liquid waste materials, solid waste materials and petroleum coke have all been successfully used as sources of energy for firing cementmaking kilns, either on their own or in various combinations.
The cement industry also participates in the efforts to find a solution to the problem of waste management. The energyintensiveness of cement production processes and increasing fuel prices, combined with fuel deficit, force the cement industry to search for technologies based on wastederived and alternative fuels.
The European cement industry has steadily increased its use of alternative fuels (a sevenfold increase since 1990) to over 7 million tonnes in 2010. Together with energy recovery, the fuel ashes are entirely used as raw material in cement production.
The average amount of energy required to produce one tonne of cement is equivalent to the combustion of approximately 120 kg of coal. Employing waste as alternative fuel has greatly helped the cement industry to manage its environmental impact. Today, many plants derive up to 70% of their energy from alternative fuels.